Friday, July 1, 2016

2016-07-01: Fulbright Enrichment Seminar - Lab to Market: Entrepreneurship and Technological Innovation Enrichment (May 24 - 28, 2016)

One of the most valuable experiences that I have in my life is being a Fulbright scholar. Before winning this scholarship, I was an employee at BPS-Statistics Indonesia. I started working there right after I received my B.S. in Computational Statistics from Institute of Statistics in Jakarta, Indonesia. I worked for 3 years when suddenly I felt like I was stuck in a comfort zone.  Science and knowledge, especially those related to technology, are growing very rapidly. There is a lo@WebSciDLt of new information out there, which I could not get if I did not get out of my office building. I need to upgrade my education for a better career in the future. I started applying for many scholarships to study abroad, got many rejections before finally I was invited to an interview for Fulbright. After a very long selection process (it took almost a year since I submitted my application), I was fortunate enough to have a Fulbright scholarship. Now, I am pursuing an M.S. in Computer Science at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. 
I feel so blessed because Fulbright not only gives me the opportunity to travel abroad and continue my education for free, it also comes with many other benefits. One of them is the opportunity to participate in an enrichment seminar hosted by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) to increase mutual understanding between the people of the U.S. and the people of other countries. There are 11 enrichment seminars conducted between December 2015 - May 2016, which covered various topics: U.S. Politics and Elections, Global Health Innovations, Democratization of Education, and Entrepreneurship and Technological Innovation. I had the honor of attending the last seminar, titled "The 2016 Lab to Market: Entrepreneurship and Technological Innovation Enrichment", which was hosted in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from May 24 - 28, 2016. This seminar focused on how to use technological advances to support scientific and business disciplines. It included discussions with the entrepreneurs who successfully brings technological products and service to the marketplace and getting involved in innovation and ideation project.

Day 1: Arrival, Registration, and Opening Dinner

Welcome Announcement
      I arrived at The Omni William Penn Hotel at 3.00 pm and directly ushered to the Three Rivers Room to do the registration and got the "welcome package" which contained a t-shirt, name tag, and a guidebook. There are seven U.S. Fulbright scholars who volunteered to assist the seminar attendees in doing the registration. One of them asked me about from which part of Indonesia I came from, then she marked my hometown on the google map to create the distribution map of Fulbright scholars who attend the seminar. 
Distribution map of the seminar attendees. 
      At 5.30 pm we departed for the opening dinner which was hosted at Senator John Heinz History Center. While having dinner, we listened to the keynote remarks from Thomas Petzinger Jr., the co-founder of LaunchCyte LLC about his experience in creating a startup and lessons that he learned (the triumphs and struggles) related to entrepreneurship. 
Keynote remarks from Thomas Petzinger, Jr.
Opening Dinner

Day 2: Panel Discussion, Site Visits, and Small Group Dinner

Discussion panel about social innovations
  We started the day by participating in a panel discussion about "Social Innovations: Tech Solutions for Global Good." The panelists were Andrew Butcher from GTECH Strategies, Corrine Clinch from Rorus Inc., and Lee Kimball from Thread International. Acting as the moderator was Tim Zak, Director of the Institute for Social Innovation at Carnegie Mellon University. The panelists shared their story and experience when transferring their academic knowledge into something that will give a real benefit to people. It is about how technologies can integrate into people's life. Here is a very nice remark that I heard in this session: "The key to success in an entrepreneur field is the ability to adapt and recover quickly, every time we fail. The real failure only happens when we give up." Moreover, Tim Zak also said, "If you want to change the world, get out of your lab and go meet customers, influencers, and investors."

After lunch, we departed for Site Visits. There are 3 sites that we could choose to visit: TechShop, Human Engineering Research Laboratories, and CREATE Lab. I joined the group that went to the TechShop. We got the opportunity to see real technological innovations and interact with people who spend their daily life dealing with innovations and creations.
TechShop Visit

Here, I also would like to share the pictures taken by my colleagues who went to CREATE Lab and Human Engineering Research Laboratories.       

A video posted by Adhitya Virtus (@avirtus) on

In the evening, the Fulbrighters are divided into six groups that will depart for six different restaurants for the group dinner. I chose to go to Alihan's Mediterranean Cuisine, which is located close to the hotel where I stayed. I used this opportunity to mingle with other Fulbright scholars and we exchanged stories and experiences about living and studying in the U.S. We also talked about current issues that are happening in our respective countries. It is always interesting to hear about something that happens in other countries from their citizen's perspectives. 
Dinner at Alihan's Mediterranean Cuisine
      We had a free evening after dinner. I and my Indonesian fellows used this opportunity to explore Pittsburgh. Initially, we only wanted to hang out at Starbucks or other coffee shops. Unfortunately, in Pittsburgh, everything closes after 8.00 pm, except the bar. Since none of us drink alcohol, we were just wandering in Pittsburgh streets before we met other Fulbright groups who invited us to go with them to Mount Washington. We took the skylift to reach the top of Mount Washington and was honored with a very beautiful view of Pittsburgh in the night. 
Pittsburgh at night
Pittsburgh views from the top of Mount Washington

Day 3: Panel Discussion, Fulbright Talks, and Cultural Activities

Panel discussion: from concept to commercialization
Again, we started the day by having a panel discussion. Today, the topic is about how to bring an academic research to commercial market. We were lucky to hear the first-hand experience from great panelists who have taken their research and inventions and built a commercial business (startups). They are Eric J. Beckman from CoHera Medical, Kathryn Farraro from BioStratica, and Noah Snyder from Interphrase Materials. We heard a mindblowing story about how an invention like a glue can be used by a surgeon to join human tissues and repair knee ligaments. The panelists were asked what is the biggest challenge that they faced so far, and does leave academia and being entrepreneurs still leaving them intellectually challenged? They answered that the biggest challenge that they have is being the entrepreneurs itself. They can still challenge their intellectuality by doing hands-on research on the things that they want without being restricted by grants. 
I summarized the discussion into these points:
  1. Think of another application for your technology that appeals to a wider market with easier accessibility
  2. Startup team is like family. You do not really need a rockstar. Chemistry and good people are what you need. If you have these, you can do everything.
  3. Avoid an excessive use of email in communication between startup team members. Talk in person is always the best.
  4. Fight against your imposter syndrome.
  5. Persistence is always the key.

Before the lunch break, we had a brief session with Kristen Van Vleck, a staff member from Institute of International Education (IIE). IIE is a non-profit organization who is responsible for organizing and administering the Fulbright scholarship. Ms. Vleck reminded us of our responsibilities and benefits as a Fulbright scholar, our visa status, and the procedures that we have to undertake after finishing our degree in the U.S. She also encouraged us to get involved in alumni networks and participate in volunteering activity to gain more experience related to cultural exchange.
Briefing from an IIE staff  
At 1.30 pm, we departed for cultural activities to Carnegie Museum of Art and Natural History. The museum tour was divided into two sessions. The first session was exploring the Museum of Art. In this part of the museum, we saw the art collections from various themes, from a beautiful landscape painting to some elusive structures, whose meaning are very hard to comprehend. The second session was exploring the Museum of Natural History, which offers several exhibitions to visit such as "Dinosaur in Their Time" and "Minerals and Gems."
Museum visits
Inside of Carnegie Museum of Art and Natural History

Day 4: Academic Entrepreneurship Overview (Science vs. Business), Ideation and Innovation Projects.

Startup Lifecycle
The morning session was started by hearing a talk from Babs Carryer, Director of Education and Outreach for the University of Pittsburgh's Innovation Institute. She gave a wonderful speech about how to bridge the gap between science and business, such as how to conduct SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis, how to analyze the customers, and what they need from us. She explained about startup lifecycle which covers the steps that we undertake to develop and idea into a startup that has financial worth. She said, more startups fail from lack of customers than from a failure of product development. It happens because scientists usually think in a reverse way: develop a solution first, then find a problem that could be solved by the solution.

Problem after solution
There is one funny experiment that we did during her talks. Since the seminar participants consist of STEM students and business/economy students, she asked the STEM people to write what they think about business people, and vice versa. It turns out that actually, both STEM and business people share some similar characteristics.
Business people vs Scientist
After the coffee break, we were divided into 10 groups and given a task to build a startup project. So, we have to pretend that we are researchers who want to propose something as a solution to global problems. In my group, we had a fierce discussion to identify what problem we want to address, how we will address it, and who our target customers are. We spent 3 hours to generate the idea and made the presentation slides of our project. The presentation went pretty well and I was amazed by the novel ideas presented by all groups, such as converting garbage into energy, turning pineapple leaves into fine clothing material, conducting a self-test to detect Zika virus, and creating and edible plastic bottle to solve sea and land pollution's problem.
Project Ideation and Innovation
We ended the day by having a closing dinner and taking some individual and group pictures at Grand Concourse Restaurant, Pittsburgh.
      I'm so thankful and grateful to get this wonderful opportunity. I learned so much about technology and innovation and got a new insight about science-business combination: "Research is not an invention. An invention is not a product. A product is not a business" - Dr. Bud PetersonIt's an unforgettable experience. I met 131 other Fulbrighters from 64 countries, which is a very valuable networking resources that will benefit my future career. 
      As a closing remark, I just want to quote a famous saying that we always hear in every Fulbright seminar or conference: "Once a Fulbrighter, always a Fulbrighter."

- Erika -

Thursday, June 30, 2016

2016-06-30: JCDL 2016 Doctoral Consortium Trip Report

Traditionally, Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) has hosted a workshop session called Doctoral Consortium (DC) specific to PhD students of digital library research field and this year (JCDL 2016) was no exception. The workshop was intended for students that are in the early stages of their dissertation work. Several WS-DL group members attended and reported past DC workshops and this time it was my turn.

This year's doctoral consortium (June 19, 2016) was chaired by George BuchananJ. Stephen Downie, and Uma Murthy. Committee members included Sally Jo CunninghamMichael NelsonMartin Klein, and Edie Rasmussen. A total of six PhD students participated in the workshop and presented their work. The doctoral consortium session is generally not open for public participation, however, Michele C. Weigle (JCDL 2016 program chair), Mat Kelly (last year's DC participant), and Alexandar Nwala (potential future participant) also attended the session. Each presenter was given about 20 minutes for talk and 10 minutes for questions and comments.

I, Sawood Alam form Old Dominion University was the first presenter of the session with my research topic, "Web Archive Profiling for Efficient Memento Aggregation". I elaborated on the problem space of my research work by giving an example of collection building, indexing, updating indexes, and profiling or summarization of the collection for better collection understanding and efficient lookup routing. With the help of real life examples and events, I established the importance of small web archives and the need of efficient means of their aggregation. I further explained the methodology and various approaches of web archive profiling depending on available resources and desired detail. I briefly described the evaluation plan and preliminary results published/accepted in TPDL15, IJDL16, and TPDL16. Finally, I presented my tentative timeline of work and publication plans. My work is supported in part by the IIPC.

Adeleke Olateju Abayomi from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa presented her work entitled, "An Investigation of the Extent of Automation of Public Libraries in South-West Nigeria". It was a survey based research for which she conducted interviews and questionnaires with randomly selected librarians for the study. Attendees of the workshop asked questions about the scope of the automation she was studying, was it limited to the background library management process or the public facing services as well and whether the library patrons were also interviewed? Committee members suggested her to also include case studies from near by countries that have invested in library automation to strengthen her arguments.

Bakare Oluwabunmi Dorcas from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa presented her research work on "The Usage of Social Media Technologies among Academic Librarians in South Western Nigeria". She used a survey based research approach by conducting interviews and questionnaires with academic librarians of six universities. She mentioned how librarians are using social media such as Facebook groups for provision of library and information service delivery to library clienteles. She was suggested to examine whether the material posted on social media is periodically archived elsewhere.

Prashant Chandrasekar from Virginia Tech presented his work on "A DL System to Facilitate Behavioral Studies of Social Networks". He is working on designing a framework that would enable researchers to conduct hypothesis testing on information related to the study of human behavior in a clinical trial that involves social networks. The system is being built with the immediate aim to serve the needs of a teams of researchers that are part of the Social Interactome project. However, the design of the framework and the scenarios of use will be generalized to all psychologists/sociologists.

Lei Li from the University of Pittsburgh and China Scholarship Council presented "A Judgement Model for Academic Content Quality on Social Media". Initially, there was some lack of clarity on what she meant by "academic content" on social media, which she clarified that her study is around ResearchGate posts and comments. The general comment from the committee on her quality assessment approach can be summarized as "it would be great to establish something of this sort, but she should limit the scope for her PhD work." Edie Rasmussen nicely put the challenge of creating a data set for quality measure as, "Life's too short to generate your own data set." which was in line with Yasmin AlNoamany saying, "I will never do it again!" while describing a manually labeled data set during her recent PhD defense. Dr. Michael Nelson suggested Lei Li to pick a good example and walk through it to elaborate on the process.

The final presentation of the day was from Jessica Ogden from the University of Southampton. Jessica presented her ongoing PhD research entitled "Interrogating the Politics and Performativity of Web Archives" which is centered on web archival practice, specifically looking at selection and collection practices across different web archiving communities in the field. Jessica prefaced the presentation with some information regarding her academic background to provide context for how the interdisciplinary project is being approached. Some philosophical questions were raised regarding the nature of web archives (and assumptions about the Web itself), as well as importance placed on the documenting the assumptions made during selection and collection of web archives (which are often left undocumented). For more details on Jessica’s research and the presentation at JCDL 2016 DC see her blog post.

Once all six participants presented their work, committee members highlighted some general comments such as every presenter did a good job of wrapping their talk in the allotted time and leaving enough time for questions and comments. They also noted that slides should not have too many words in them so that the presenter ends up reading them verbatim, on the other hand they should not be on the other extreme either where every slide has nothing but pictures. After these comments, the session was open for everyone to provide any feedback or ask general questions from presenters or the committee members. I noted that this year's doctoral consortium was dominated by "social media" based study.

On our way back to the hotel Alexander said, "the committee members had such a deep understanding of the subject and provided very useful comments." Mat and I replied, "yes they did indeed." It is strongly recommended that if possible, every PhD candidate should participate in a Doctoral Consortium workshop of the respective field at least once to gain some insights and perspective from the people outside their thesis committee members.

You may also like to read the main JCDL 2016 conference coverage by Alexander and the WADL 2016 workshop coverage by Mat.

Sawood Alam

Monday, June 27, 2016

2016-06-27: Symposium on Saving The Web at the Library of Congress

On June 16, 2016, the Library of Congress hosted a one day Symposium entitled Saving the Web: The Ethics and Challenges of Preserving What's on the Internet. The Symposium came at the end of the Archives Unleashed 2.0 Web Archive Datathon. The Datathon itself is covered in an earlier report. In addition to presenting the results of datathon projects, the wide variety of speakers at the symposium defended the need for preservation, discussed the special issues associated with preservation of data, and finally highlighted the importance and concepts surrounding the preservation of multimedia.

Keynote by Vint Cerf

The symposium opened with Dame Wendy Hall, Professor of Computer Science at the University of Southampton and Kluge Chair in Science and Technology at the Library of Congress. She mentioned that the Internet has only been available for a few decades and we need to preserve its openness and freedom, because that openness and freedom are always in peril.  She used those points to introduce one of the inventors of TCP/IP, Vint Cerf.

Vint Cerf talked about the instability of the current Internet. He introduced the idea of "Digital Vellum", referring to vellum, a form of parchment created from animal skin that was once used to create fine quality documents. The goal is to not only capture the documents and data that make up the Internet, but also be able to recreate them in the distant future.

He highlighted a number of problems with the current Internet. URLs associated with domain names are not stable; a change in ownership or solvency of a company or organization can cause a domain name to stop responding.

To understand the context surrounding them, digital objects also require a lot of metadata to be captured in addition to their original content. Users need enough information to correctly interpret the content that has been preserved because its context may be lost to time.

Copyright law needs to be amended to give rights and protections to archival organizations, like the Library of Congress. Serious questions about protections for archival and replay of archived content still exist.
He explained the importance of multiple web archives, noting historical issues with libraries and archives being lost to natural disasters or war. He thinks there is something "delicious" about the Library of Alexandria being a backup site for the Internet Archive. He said that we still have many of the artifacts of the ancient world purely by luck or accident, and that we can do better.

Talking about other digital objects, Vint Cerf then discussed efforts to preserve software. He mentioned the OLIVE preservation project for archiving and replaying executable content.  They are currently looking into streaming virtual machines in order to replay old executables on modern systems. He did confess that we have a long way to go before we're able to reproduce old results in some cases.

Vint Cerf mentioned that idea of the "self-archiving Web", indicating that we need collaboration, open design, and new business models. He said that, due to its success, the Internet could serve as a good source of lessons for how one would go about designing the self-archiving Web. Participating in the current Internet is done by just following the agreed upon protocols. It works largely because of its modularity and its capacity for layered evolution. The self-archiving Web should also try to embrace these strengths.
He listed outstanding questions with the approach of archiving the Internet. He said that he had some issues with contemplating the idea of the Internet containing itself. Is there were a better replacement for hyperlinks due to their deterioration? Should be be using something like DOIs instead? When should a snapshot be taken? How do we know when a change has occurred in a resource? How do we ensure that old formats, like old versions of HTML, will render well for future users? Do we store malware or encryption keys? How to handle access control for resources?

The other inventor of TCP/IP, Bob Kahn of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), was unable to attend. He was scheduled to present Digital Object Architecture (DOA), so Vint Cerf continued by presenting that work as well. He talked about the existing handle systems, such as DOI, where identifiers, rather than locations, are used for digital objects. These identifiers are then submitted to a resolution system that locates the object and then delivers it to the user. Of course, this resolution system is an additional layer of infrastructure that must be managed. There are quite a few handle system implementations, including those supported by the Library of Congress, CrossRef, and mEDRA.

He finished up by accepting a few questions from the audience. From these exchanges came additional insight - and funny moments - shown in the tweets below.

Archives Unleashed Presentation

Ian Milligan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of History at the University of Waterloo. He discussed the use of web archives in studying history, highlighting how he used warcbase in a study of 186 million archived pages from He spoke about the importance in studying online communities in order to understand a period of history.

Then Ian and some team representatives presented our hard work from the Archives Unleashed Hackathon. We had worked on a variety of projects with different datasets. A lot of natural language processing combined with temporal metadata and modeling allowed our groups to study sentiment in elections, uncover differences in media reporting based on country, discovering documents related to terrorism, and more.

The Need for Preservation

Next was a series of presentations and panel discussion moderated by David Lazer (Northeastern University) with Abbie Grotke (Library of Congress), Jefferson Bailey (Internet Archive), Richard Marciano (University of Maryland), and Richard Price (British Library). Their topic was "The Need for Preservation". David Lazer started by discussing the curation of archives and posed the open question of how to determine which archived pages are valuable.

David Lazer

David Lazer is a Professor in Political Science and Computer and Information Science at Northeastern University. He started the session by discussing the quality of what has been archived. He mentioned that digital media allows us to think of documents and data in a different way. He discussed the issues with finding useful information in Twitter data, due to the presence of bots and other sources of noise.

Jefferson Bailey

Jefferson Bailey is the Director of Web Archiving Programs for the Archive-It Team at the Internet Archive. He highlighted some statistics about its current holdings as well as talking about its multimodal crawling strategy including work with libraries. At the moment, researchers must develop problem-specific tools to work with the Internet Archive. They are currently gathering information on research interests in an attempt to create a set of general purpose tools for research.

Richard Marciano

Richard Marciano leads the Digital Curation Innovation Center (DCIC) at the University of Maryland. He spoke about DCIC's work with big data and how it was related to digital archives. He finished up with some thought-provoking questions shown below.

Richard Price

Richard Price is the Head of Contemporary British Collections at the British Library. He discussed the mission of saving the web, and stressed that advocacy has always been important for libraries and archives. He mentioned that users are often the best advocates and that the right language is best when trying to advocate for web archiving, preferring the term "time travel" because it seems to engender more interest from the public.

Abbie Grotke

Abbie Grotke is the web archiving team lead for the Library of Congress. She discussed the curated web archive maintained by the Library of Congress. They perform regular crawls of specific websites and use RSS feeds to inform their crawling. Currently the team is focused on acquiring web content, but they do not yet have the resources to make it all accessible. She said that there are challenges to archiving the web in the United States, because most sites do not sit under a country-specific top level domain. The question and answer session afterwards brought up a number of good thoughts. What are the ethics of archiving? Many archives have a national focus, but many topics are international; how do we curate topics so that they are available across archives? Do people have a right to be forgotten?

Putting Data to Work

The next session was moderated by Dame Wendy Hall. The speakers for this session were Lee Rainie (Pew Research Center), Katy Borner (Indiana University Bloomington), James Hendler (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), and Phillip E. Scheur (Stanford University).

Lee Rainie

Lee Rainie is the director of Internet, Science and Technology for the Pew Research Center. He stated that he was happy that so many large scale projects involving Internet data, and especially archived data, have a civic focus. He bemoaned the decline of civic news provided by newspapers, but said that librarians and archivists can play an important role in ensuring that civic information gets archived in web archives. He did warn that, though so many research projects acquire data from Twitter, only 20% of Americans use twitter, meaning that many perspectives are lost.

Katy Börner

Katy Börner is a Distinguished Professor of Information Science at the School of Informatics and Computing at Indiana University Bloomington. She discussed the exciting world of visualizing (web) science. She featured some of the work at, a site dedicated to visualizations of scientific data. I was surprised to see her highlight the "Clickstream Map of Science" that was "near and dear" to her, with which I was very familiar because it was created by Johan Bollen, Herbert Van de Sompel, and others as part of "Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science". She mentioned the need to not only create tools for visualizing web data, but also the importance of pursuing information literacy so that many can use these tools as well.

James Hendler

James Hendler is Director of the Institute for Data Exploration and Applications and the Tetherless World Professor of Computer, Web and Cognitive Sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). He is one of the originators of the Semantic Web. He discussed data and how important it is to ensure that the data we use for research is suitable for others to consume as well. He mentioned the importance of metadata for making sense of data in context, echoing earlier points made by Vint Cerf. He talked about the temporal nature of data and how accessing datasets at different points in time is in itself useful. I spoke to him during one of the breaks about work the LANL Prototyping Team has been doing in regards to temporal access to semantic web data.

Philip Schreur

Philip Schreur is the Assistant University Librarian for Technical and Access Services at Stanford University Library. He discussed the issues of metadata and how libraries are engaged in a migration to linked data. He mentioned the importance of metadata in understanding historical context. He said that shifting from MARC and other metadata formats will be difficult, but necessary for the future of libraries. He sees a future where libraries will be creating metadata for the purposes of sharing it with the web. He also agrees that libraries will continue to curate data, but acquisition of content will be automated.

Dame Wendy Hall

Dame Wendy Hall then began talking about where she would take libraries, emphasizing that it is data that patrons are looking for. That data may take the form of documents, datasets, etc., but is more than just articles. She mentioned that librarians need to become more data-savvy and that discovery will become more and more important.

Saving Media

The last session was moderated by Matthew Weber (Rutgers University). This session included Philip Napoli (Rutgers University), Ramesh Jain (University of California, Irvine), and Katrin Weller (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences and former Kluge Fellow in Digital Studies).

Matthew Weber

Matthew Weber is an Assistant Professor in the School of Communication and Information at Rutgers University. He began the session by talking about how web content changes and how it is possible to view the perceptions of a group in a specific point in time because of these changes.

Philip Napoli

Philip Napoli is a Professor of Journalism and Media Studies in Rutgers School of Communication and Information. He began by echoing one of Vint Cerf's points: there is so much diverse content that it is more difficult to do a study in the early 2000s than it is to study media from the past. He mentioned that there needs to be focus on archiving local news because it is getting lost. It is also an area that local libraries can participate in.

Ramesh Jain

Ramesh Jain is a Professor at the Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. His is area of research includes multimedia information systems. He spoke about multimedia and how the growth of cameras have created an unprecedented capability for capturing events. He mentioned how a change is occurring, in part thanks to social media, whereby now we are producing "visual documents" that contain text rather than textual documents that begrudgingly contain photos. He emphasized that we have begun not just creating a web of documents, but a "web of events".

Katrin Weller

Katrin Weller is an information scientist working at the GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences. She discussed the issue of context in social media. Will present hashtags have any meaning in the future? She mentioned that future historians may use past instructional texts, like "Twitter for Dummies", to understand how our current tools are used. In some cases, it is important to understand that people change social media accounts over time.

Conclusion by Dame Wendy Hall

Dame Wendy Hall concluded the symposium by discussing the growth of the Internet and how it has changed the world. Her group at the University of Southampton hosts the Web Science Trust, with the goal of facilitating the development of Web Science. She explained that while libraries will be maintaining physical collections, data has also become important to researchers, requiring librarians to learn new data science skills. This led her to introduce Web Observatory, a place to share and link datasets so that researchers can answer questions about the web. The goal is to have metadata in a standard format that will support discovery, but also allow libraries to share each others' data rather than having to collect all of it themselves.

Thoughts and Thanks

All in all, this was an excellent experience and I am glad I attended. I was able to make contact with some of the best minds from a variety of fields while learning about their really fascinating work.

Thanks to Vint Cerf, Ian Milligan, David Lazer, Abbie Grotke, Jefferson Bailey, Richard Marciano, Richard Price, Lee Rainie, Katy Borner, James Hendler, Philip E. Scheur, Dame Wendy Hall, Matthew Weber, Philip Napoli, Ramesh Jain, and Katrin Weller for the excellent thought-provoking presentations.

Thanks to Matthew Weber, Ian Milligan, Jimmy Lin, Noshir Contractor, David Lazer, Wendy Hall, Nicholas Taylor, and Jefferson Bailey for making Archives Unleashed a reality and connecting it to the Save the Web Symposium. Also, thanks to all of the Archives Unleashed attendees who made the experience quite rewarding.

And final thanks go to Dame Wendy Hall and the John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress for hosting the event.

Thanks much for tweets from @DameWendyDBE, @EpistolaryBrown, @joecar25, @kwelle, @nullhandle, @websitemgmt, @lljohnston, @tsuomela, @jesseajohnston, @kzwa, @jillreillyjames, @lrainie, @ianmilligan1, @KlugeCtr, @NEH_PresAccess, @KingsleySteph, @justin_littman, @jahendler, @MikeNelson, @docmattweber, @raiminetinati, @earlymodernpost

Many others have also written articles about this event, including: -- Shawn M. Jones